Types of Wood Joints and Their Uses in Woodworking
You can give your projects a more finished and professional look by using joints instead of nails and screws. Here are some types of wood joints and their uses in woodworking:
Butt joints are the least-complicated of the woodworking joints and are therefore easy for beginners to master. The joint is made by pushing, or butting, two board ends together and securing them with screws, nails and/or glue. Simple wood boxes are often constructed this way.
While the butt joint offers a quick finish, in most cases it lacks structural strength. For example, if a butt joint constructed with nails is used to bear much weight, the nails may soon pull out of the wood. Beginners, however, might find the butt joint an easy way to complete a project without needing advanced woodworking knowledge or expensive equipment.
A dowel joint is a common method of reinforcing a butt joint in furniture. They are common in cabinets, chairs, panels and tabletops. This would also be an ideal technique for joining two flat pieces together to form a larger flat surface. There’s no hard-and-fast rule as to how many dowels should be used; just remember that the more dowels you use, the stronger the joint will be.
In this video you can see how to make a dowel joint:
As for the dowel itself, you can cut your own from a length of wood or you can buy ready-made dowels. Buying them is a far better option, as they are usually beveled at the ends for easier insertion into the holes. They are also ribbed to allow the glue to bond more efficiently. Each hole should be just over half the length of the dowel being used.
Once you have finished your joint(s), you should clamp them tightly overnight. Ensure that both pieces remain flat and do not try to warp.
The dovetail is typically used to join two pieces of wood together at a right angle. Most woodworkers would probably tell you that, if you want a really strong joint that also looks appealing, the dovetail joint is the way to go.
The simplest way to make a dovetail joint is to use a router and a dovetail jig. If you’re serious about making any kind of cabinets, drawers, boxes or cupboards in the future, it’ll be well worth it to include these items amongst your woodworking tools. Your router kit user manual should cover the necessary instructions.
This video shows how the process works:
It will take you a while to get the measurements perfect (such as the depth of the router cut) so practice with scrap wood before you try the procedure on any project.
Slotted Tenon Joints
Slotted tenon joints are commonly used as a way of fixing shelving into the walls of a unit. However, there are a number of other purposes for which you can use them.
The idea behind using a slotted tenon joint is that only one of the two pieces of wood needs to be modified in order to achieve a good, snug fit. To accomplish this, you need to make a groove or slot into one piece of wood, the slot being the same width as the thickness of the second piece of wood. You can then push this second piece of wood into the groove, making a sturdy, right-angled join.
The most effective way of creating the slot is by using a router. Although it’s possible to use a chisel instead, it will take much longer to make and the quality of finish will not be as good.
Take care when making the slot. If you make it too wide, the joint will not be tight enough to work. It would be much better to start with too tight a slot and then carefully widen it.
Here’s an example of how you can use a table saw to cut your groove:
Depending on the job to be done, a router is not always the ideal tool to use, however. If the slot is to hold, for example, a piece of 1/4-inch-thick plywood (or thinner), you should rather use a circular saw, changing the depth of cut to as little as 1/4 inch. A small cut like that would be ideal when you want to make the joint for the back panel of a bedside cabinet, for example.
In this article, we have covered 4 types of wood joints and their uses. Now that you’ve acquired some basic woodworking knowledge, it’s time to get started on some easy woodworking projects for beginners!